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Once the airway has been cleared, check if the casualty is breathing.

  • STEP 1 - Check for breathing. Look, feel and listen.
  • STEP 2 - If the casualty is breathing, leave them in the Lateral (sideward) position.
  • STEP 3 - Monitor and manage shock, bleeding and any other injuries
  • STEP 4 - If the casualty is not breathing, support the head and neck, then roll onto their back and give 5 full breaths in 10 seconds


Start EAR if the causality is not breathing. EAR is also called mouth-to-mouth

There are three methods of EAR:

  • Mouth-to-mouth
  • Mouth-to-nose
  • Mouth-to-mask

Turn the casualty to his side to clear the airway before starting EAR

Mouth to Mouth

  • STEP 1 - Turn the casualty onto his back
  • STEP 2 - Tilt the head back slightly and lift the jaw forward.
  • STEP 3 - Pinch the casualty’s nostrils with thumb and finger to seal the nose.
  • STEP 4- Take a deep breath and breathe into the casualty's mouth.
  • STEP 5 - Remove lips. Allow chest to fall. Turn your head to the side to check if the chest is rising and falling after each inflation
  • STEP 6 - If chest does not rise, check the angle of the head then check the airway. If the stomach rises, decrease the amount of breath.
  • STEP 7- Give 5 full breaths in 10 seconds, then check the carotid (neck) pulse
  • STEP 8 - If pulse is present, commence EAR at the rate of 15 breaths per minute.

Mouth to Nose

This is done if there is an injury in the mouth.

  • STEP 1 - Tilt the casualty's head back
  • STEP 2- Close the casualty's mouth.
  • STEP 3 - Take a deep breath and breathe into the casualty's nose.
  • STEP 4- Take your mouth away and open the casualty's mouth.
  • STEP 5- Give 5 full breaths in 10 seconds
  • STEP 6- Check the carotid (neck) pulse. If pulse is present, commence EAR at the rate of 15 breaths per minute.


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